Estudios científicos que evidencian la intoxicación de la macro y micro-fauna por herbicida glifosato y sus formulaciones RoundUp.

Ecotoxicology. 2011 Jan;20(1):255-63. Epub 2010 Nov 18.

Effect of Roundup® (glyphosate formulation) in the energy metabolism and reproductive traits of Hyalella castroi (Crustacea, Amphipoda, Dogielinotidae).


Departamento de Ciências Morfofisiológicas, Laboratório de Fisiologia da Conservação, Pontifícia Universidade Católica do Rio Grande do Sul, PUCRS, Av. Ipiranga, 6681 Pd. 12A Sala 270, Caixa Postal 1429, Porto Alegre, RS, 90619-900, Brazil.


Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) is a nonselective and posts emergent herbicide used for controlling aquatic weeds and different concentrations are used in cultures around the world. The objective of this investigation was to examine the effects of Roundup(®) (glyphosate formulation) on the biochemical composition, levels of lipoperoxidation, Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity and reproductive traits in the Hyalella castroi. Amphipods were collected in summer 2009, in the southern Brazilian highlands. In the laboratory, the animals were kept in aquariums under controlled conditions for 7 days, and after this period they were exposed to 0.36, 0.52, 1.08 and 2.16 mg/l of glyphosate for 7 days. After the period of exposure, the animals were immediately frozen for determination of glycogen, proteins, lipids, triglycerides, cholesterol, levels of lipoperoxidation, and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity. During each day of the cultivation reproductive traits (number of reproductive pairs, ovigerous females and eggs in the marsupium) were observed. All concentrations of Roundup(®) induced significant decreases in all biochemical parameters and Na(+)/K(+)ATPase activity, and significant increase in lipoperoxidation levels. Showing this form a potentially toxic effect at very low concentrations, this pattern of results can lead to significant changes in trophic structure of limnic environments because these amphipods are important links in food chain in these habitats.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Mutagenesis. 2010 Sep;25(5):523-30. Epub 2010 Jul 19.

European eel (Anguilla anguilla) genotoxic and pro-oxidant responses following short-term exposure to Roundup--a glyphosate-based herbicide.


Centre for Environmental and Marine Studies and Department of Biology, Campus Universitário de Santiago, Aveiro University, 3810-193 Aveiro, Portugal.


The glyphosate-based herbicide, Roundup, is among the most used pesticides worldwide. Due to its extensive use, it has been widely detected in aquatic ecosystems representing a potential threat to non-target organisms, including fish. Despite the negative impact of this commercial formulation in fish, as described in literature, the scarcity of studies assessing its genotoxicity and underlying mechanisms is evident. Therefore, as a novel approach, this study evaluated the genotoxic potential of Roundup to blood cells of the European eel (Anguilla anguilla) following short-term (1 and 3 days) exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations (58 and 116 microg/l), addressing also the possible association with oxidative stress. Thus, comet and erythrocytic nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) assays were adopted, as genotoxic end points, reflecting different types of genetic damage. The pro-oxidant state was assessed through enzymatic (catalase, glutathione-S-transferase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase) and non-enzymatic (total glutathione content) antioxidants, as well as by lipid peroxidation (LPO) measurements. The Roundup potential to induce DNA strand breaks for both concentrations was demonstrated by the comet assay. The induction of chromosome breakage and/or segregational abnormalities was also demonstrated through the ENA assay, though only after 3-day exposure to both tested concentrations. In addition, the two genotoxic indicators were positively correlated. Antioxidant defences were unresponsive to Roundup. LPO levels increased only for the high concentration after the first day of exposure, indicating that oxidative stress caused by this agrochemical in blood was not severe. Overall results suggested that both DNA damaging effects induced by Roundup are not directly related with an increased pro-oxidant state. Moreover, it was demonstrated that environmentally relevant concentrations of Roundup can pose a health risk for fish populations.

[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
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Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Volume 73, Issue 7, October 2010, Pages 1681-1688

Jacek Lipoka, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Hanna Studnika and Steven Gruyaerta, b
a Faculty of Chemistry, Opole University, Oleska 48, 45-052 Opole, Poland
b Catholic University College Sint-Lieven, Gebroeders Desmetstraat 1, 9000 Gent, Belgium
Received 14 April 2010; 
revised 8 August 2010; 
accepted 13 August 2010. 
Available online 1 September 2010.


The toxicity of commercial formulation of Roundup® 360 SL, widely used, nonselective herbicide and its main constituents, glyphosate (PMG), equimolar (1:1) isopropylamine salt of glyphosate (GIPA) and isopropylamine (IPA) was examined towards eight aquatic microphotoautotrophs; seven cyanobacterial strains representing either saline or freshwater communities, and common eukaryotic algae Chlorella vulgaris Beijerinck. Autotrophs were cultured 21 days in their appropriate standard media supplemented with various amounts of Roundup®, glyphosate, GIPA and IPA. The determination of the growth of examined photoautotrophs was performed by time-course measurements of total chlorophyll content in experimental cultures. The growth rates related to corresponding concentrations of chemicals, the EC50 values and generation doubling time were determined in order to present the toxicity Roundup® 360 SL formulation and its main constituents. Market available formulation of Roundup® was found to possess toxicity significantly higher than this, attributed to its main constituents; however both these compounds, isopropylamine and glyphosate, also inhibited the growth of examined strains in a dose-dependent manner. Notably, the interpretation of toxicity of the examined substances was found to be significantly dependent on the method of EC50 calculation. The choice of molar or weight concentration of substances tested separately and in specific formulation was found to be essential in this matter. Due to these findings the EC50 values were calculated based either on molar or on weight concentrations. Considering Roundup® 360 SL formulation, these values ranged from 10−3 up to 10−1 mM and they were one order of magnitude lower than those found for isopropylamine. Quite surprisingly the minimum EC50 values found for glyphosate did not reach micromolar concentrations, whereas most of the EC50 values revealed to IPA did not exceed this range. Notably, in all the cases except for Synechocystis aquatilis Sauvageau, isopropylamine alone was indicated as more toxic than glyphosate.
Keywords: Roundup®; Glyphosate; Isopropylamine; Toxicity; Cyanobacteria; Algae

Environmental Pollution
Volume 158, Issue 8, August 2010, Pages 2610-2617

Simon K. Dineharta, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Loren M. Smitha, Scott T. McMurrya, Philip N. Smithb, Todd A. Andersonb and David A. Haukosc
a Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA
b The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Box 41163, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
c U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, MS 2125, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX 79409, USA
Received 22 February 2010; 
revised 3 May 2010; 
accepted 5 May 2010. 
Available online 10 June 2010.


Pesticides have been implicated in widespread amphibian declines. We assessed acute and chronic toxicity of two widely used herbicides to larval New Mexico (Spea multiplicata) and Plains (S. bombifrons) spadefoots from cropland and native grassland playas. Roundup WeatherMAX® (WM) toxicity estimates (48- and 216-h LC50; 48-h LC1) for both species were similar to environmental concentrations expected from accidental overspray. Chronic (30-day) exposure to WM at predicted environmental concentrations (2.0 and 2.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalents/L) reduced survival of both species. Ignite® 280 SL (IG) toxicity estimates (48-h LC50 and LC1) for both species were above predicted environmental concentrations of 1.0 mg glufosinate/L. Chronic exposure to predicted environmental concentrations of IG did not reduce survival of either species. Toxicity test results suggest that at predicted environmental concentrations IG would not cause extensive mortalities among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots. However, WM may cause extensive mortality among larvae of these species.
Roundup WeatherMAX® may cause extensive mortality among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots; it is unlikely that exposure to Ignite® 280 SL would result in extensive mortalities.
Keywords: Amphibian decline; Glyphosate; Herbicide; Roundup

Environ Pollut. 2010 Aug;158(8):2610-7. Epub 2010 Jun 11.

Acute and chronic toxicity of Roundup Weathermax and Ignite 280 SL to larval Spea multiplicata and S. bombifrons from the Southern High Plains, USA.


Department of Zoology, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK 74078, USA.


Pesticides have been implicated in widespread amphibian declines. We assessed acute and chronic toxicity of two widely used herbicides to larval New Mexico (Spea multiplicata) and Plains (S. bombifrons) spadefoots from cropland and native grassland playas. Roundup WeatherMAX (WM) toxicity estimates (48- and 216-h LC(50); 48-h LC(1)) for both species were similar to environmental concentrations expected from accidental overspray. Chronic (30-day) exposure to WM at predicted environmental concentrations (2.0 and 2.8 mg glyphosate acid equivalents/L) reduced survival of both species. Ignite 280 SL (IG) toxicity estimates (48-h LC(50) and LC(1)) for both species were above predicted environmental concentrations of 1.0 mg glufosinate/L. Chronic exposure to predicted environmental concentrations of IG did not reduce survival of either species. Toxicity test results suggest that at predicted environmental concentrations IG would not cause extensive mortalities among larval New Mexico and Plains spadefoots. However, WM may cause extensive mortality among larvae of these species.
Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 
Toxicol In Vitro. 2010 Apr;24(3):795-802. Epub 2009 Dec 29.

Effects of Roundup and glyphosate formulations on intracellular transport, microtubules and actin filaments in Xenopus laevis melanophores.


Department of Zoology, University of Gothenburg, PO Box 463, SE-405 30 Göteborg, Sweden.


Glyphosate containing herbicides, such as Roundup, are commonly used and generally considered to be safe. However, some toxic effects are found on amphibians in vivo and human and mouse cells in vitro. In this study the effects of Roundup, glyphosate, glyphosateisopropylamine and isopropylamine were studied on intracellular transport by measuring aggregation capacity in Xenopus laevis melanophores. The chemicals inhibited retrograde transport of melanosomes in the range of 0.5-5mM. Cellular morphology and localization of microtubules and actin filaments were affected as determined by immunocytochemistry. Both glyphosate and Roundup decreased pH in the media. Acidic pH inhibited melanosome transport and altered microtubule and actin morphology in the absence of chemicals, while transport inhibiting concentrations of glyphosate, Roundup and glyphosateisopropylamine disassembled both microtubules and actin filaments. At physiological pH the effects of Roundup decreased whereas glyphosate failed to inhibit transport. Physiological pH decreases glyphosate lipophilicity and its diffusion into the cytoplasm. The Roundup formulation contains surfactants, such as POEA (polyetylated tallow amine) that increases membrane permeability allowing cellular uptake at physiological pH. Our results show that the effects of glyphosate containing compounds are pH-dependent and that they inhibit intracellular transport through disassembly of the cytoskeleton possibly by interfering with intracellular Ca(2+)-balance.
Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
Ecotoxicology. 2010 Apr;19(4):710-21. Epub 2009 Nov 29.

New evidences of Roundup (glyphosate formulation) impact on the periphyton community and the water quality of freshwater ecosystems.


Laboratorio de Limnología, Departamento de Ecología, Genética y Evolución, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Pab. II, C1428EHA, Buenos Aires, Argentina.


Argentina is the second largest world producer of soybeans (after the USA) and along with the increase in planted surface and production in the country, glyphosate consumption has grown in the same way. We investigated the effects of Roundup (glyphosate formulation) on the periphyton colonization. The experiment was carried out over 42 days in ten outdoor mesocosms of different typology: "clear" waters with aquatic macrophytes and/or metaphyton and "turbid" waters with great occurrence of phytoplankton or suspended inorganic matter. The herbicide was added at 8 mg L(-1) of the active ingredient (glyphosate) in five mesocosms while five were left as controls (without Roundup addition). The estimate of the dissipation rate (k) of glyphosate showed a half-life value of 4.2 days. Total phosphorus significantly increased in treated mesocosms due to Roundup degradation what favored eutrophication process. Roundup produced a clear delay in periphytic colonization in treated mesocosms and values of the periphytic mass variables (dry weight, ash-free dry weight and chlorophyll a) were always higher in control mesocosms. Despite the mortality of algae, mainly diatoms, cyanobacteria was favored in treated mesocosms. It was observed that glyphosate produced a long term shift in the typology of mesocosms, "clear" turning to "turbid", which is consistent with the regional trend in shallow lakes in the Pampa plain of Argentina. Based on our findings it is clear that agricultural practices that involve the use of herbicides such as Roundup affect non-target organisms and the water quality, modifying the structure and functionality of freshwater ecosystems.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Volume 78, Issue 3, January 2010, Pages 294-299

Kathya A. Modestoa and Cláudia B.R. MartinezCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, E-mail The Corresponding Author
a Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, 86051-990 Londrina, C.P. 6001 Paraná, Brazil
Received 13 August 2009; 
revised 15 October 2009; 
accepted 20 October 2009. 
Available online 11 November 2009.


This work aimed to evaluate Roundup® effects on biochemical biomarkers of the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Fish were acutely exposed (6, 24 and 96 h) to 10 mg L−1 of Roundup® (RD) or only water (control) and samples of liver, for antioxidants analysis, and brain and muscle, for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) determination, were collected. Fish exposed to RD for 24 h showed reduction on superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities, and increased glutathione (GSH) content. After 24 and 96 h, fish of RD group showed increased glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity and lipid peroxidation. AChE activity was inhibited in brain after 96 h and in muscle after 24 and 96 h of exposure. Thus, acute exposure to RD stimulated the biotransformation pathway, with increased GST, but interfered on the antioxidant defenses, with reduction of SOD and GPx activity, leading to the occurrence of lipid peroxidation. Inhibition of AChE showed that RD acts as a contaminant with anti-AChE action.
Keywords: Antioxidant enzymes; Herbicide; Lipid peroxidation; Neotropical fish

Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume 28, Issue 3, November 2009, Pages 379-385

Nahla S. El-ShenawyCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, E-mail The Corresponding Author
a Zoology Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, El Daeri kilo 4, Ismailia, Egypt
Received 7 January 2009; 
revised 4 June 2009; 
accepted 9 June 2009. 
Available online 18 June 2009.


Glyphosate is the active ingredient and polyoxyethyleneamine, the major component, is the surfactant present in the herbicide Roundup formulation. The objective of this study was to analyze potential cytotoxicity of the Roundup and its fundamental substance (glyphosate). Albino male rats were intraperitoneally treated with sub-lethal concentration of Roundup (269.9 mg/kg) or glyphosate (134.95 mg/kg) each 2 days, during 2 weeks. Hepatotoxicity was monitored by quantitative analysis of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activities, total protein, albumin, triglyceride and cholesterol. Creatinine and urea were used as the biochemical markers of kidney damages. The second aim of this study to investigate how glyphosate alone or included in herbicide Roundup affected hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels of animals as an index of antioxidant status and oxidative stress, respectively, as well as the serum nitric oxide (NO) and alpha tumour necrosis factor (TNF-α) were measured. Treatment of animals with Roundup induced the leakage of hepatic intracellular enzymes, ALT, AST and ALP suggesting irreversible damage in hepatocytes starting from the first week. It was found that the effects were different on the enzymes in Roundup and glyphosate-treated groups. Significant time-dependent depletion of GSH levels and induction of oxidative stress in liver by the elevated levels of LPO, further confirmed the potential of Roundup to induce oxidative stress in hepatic tissue. However, glyphosate caused significant increases in NO levels more than Roundup after 2 weeks of treatment. Both treatments increased the level of TNF-α by the same manner. The results suggest that excessive antioxidant disruptor and oxidative stress is induced with Roundup than glyphosate.
Keywords: Roundup; Glyphosate; Glutathione; Lipid peroxidation; Nitric oxide; Alpha-tumour necrosis factor
Abbreviations: ALT, alanine aminotransferase; AST, aspartate aminotransferase; ALP, alkaline phosphatase; GSH, reduced glutathione; LPO, lipid peroxidation; TNF-α, alpha tumour necrosis factor; NO, nitric oxide; ROS, reactive oxygen species; HPLC, high performance liquid chromatography

Chemosphere. 2009 Aug;76(7):932-7. Epub 2009 May 17.

Low toxic herbicide Roundup induces mild oxidative stress in goldfish tissues.


Department of Biochemistry, Precarpathian National University named after Vassyl Stefanyk, 57 Shevchenko Str., Ivano-Frankivsk 76025, Ukraine.


The formulation of Roundup consists of the herbicide glyphosate as the active ingredient with polyethoxylene amine added as a surfactant. The acute toxicity of Roundup (particularly of glyphosate) to animals is considered to be low according to the World Health Organization, but the extensive use of Roundup may still cause environmental problems with negative impact on wildlife, particularly in an aquatic environment where chemicals may persist for a long time. Therefore, we studied the effects of Roundup on markers of oxidative stress and antioxidant defense in goldfish, Carassius auratus. The fish were given 96 h exposure to Roundup at concentrations of 2.5-20 mg L(-1). Exposure to Roundup did not affect levels of lipid peroxides (LOOH) in goldfish brain or liver, and in kidney only the 10 mg L(-1) treatment elevated LOOH by 3.2-fold. Herbicide exposure also had no effect on the concentrations of protein thiols or low molecular mass thiols in kidney, but selective suppression of low molecular mass thiols by 26-29% occurred at some treatment levels in brain and liver. Roundup exposure generally suppressed the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase in fish tissues. For example, SOD activities were reduced by 51-68% in brain, 58-67% in liver and 33-53% in kidney of Roundup treated fish. GST activity decreased by 29-34% in liver. However, catalase activity increased in both liver and kidney of herbicide-exposed fish. To our knowledge this is the first study to demonstrate a systematic response by the antioxidant systems of fish to Roundup exposure.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Mutation Research/Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis
Volume 672, Issue 2, 31 January 2009, Pages 95-102

G.L. Polettaa, b, c, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, E-mail The Corresponding Author, A. Larrieraa, d, E. Kleinsorgeb and M.D. Mudryc
aProyecto Yacaré (Gobierno Santa Fe/MUPCN), A. del Valle 8700, CP: 3000, Santa Fe, Argentina
bCát. de Toxicol., Farm. y Bioq. Legal, Fac. Bioq. y Cs. Biol., UNL, Santa Fe, Argentina
cGrupo de Inv. en Biol. Evol. (GIBE), Fac. Cs. Exactas y Naturales, UBA, CONICET, Buenos Aires, Argentina
dCat. Manejo de Flora y Fauna Silvestre, Fac. Hum. y Cs., UNL, Santa Fe, Argentina
Received 6 August 2008; 
revised 6 October 2008; 
accepted 8 October 2008. 
Available online 30 October 2008.


The genotoxicity of pesticides is an issue of worldwide concern. The present study was undertaken to evaluate the genotoxic potential of a widely used herbicide formulation, Roundup® (glyphosate), in erythrocytes of broad-snouted caiman (Caiman latirostris) after in ovo exposure. Caiman embryos were exposed at early embryonic stage to different sub-lethal concentrations of Roundup® (50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500, 750, 1000, 1250 and 1750 μg/egg). At time of hatching, blood samples were obtained from each animal and two short-term tests, the Comet assay and the Micronucleus (MN) test, were performed on erythrocytes to assess DNA damage. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed at a concentration of 500 μg/egg or higher, compared to untreated control animals (p < 0.05). Results from both the Comet assay and the MN test revealed a concentration-dependent effect. This study demonstrated adverse effects of Roundup® on DNA of C. latirostris and confirmed that the Comet assay and the MN test applied on caiman erythrocytes are useful tools in determining potential genotoxicity of pesticides. The identification of sentinel species as well as sensitive biomarkers among the natural biota is imperative to thoroughly evaluate genetic damage, which has significant consequences for short- and long-term survival of the natural species.
Keywords: Caiman latirostris; Pesticides; Glyphosate formulations; Comet assay; Micronucleous test

Environmental Pollution
Volume 157, Issue 1, January 2009, Pages 57-63

Valeska Contardo-Jaraa, 1, E-mail The Corresponding Author, Eva Klingelmannb, 1, E-mail The Corresponding Author and Claudia Wieganda, c, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author
aLeibniz-Institute of Freshwater Ecology and Inland Fisheries, Department of Inland Fisheries, Biochemical Regulation, Müggelseedamm 301, 12587 Berlin, Germany
bTechnische Universität Berlin/Berlin Institute of Technology, Department of Ecology, Chair of Soil Protection, Salzufer 12, 10587 Berlin, Germany
cHumboldt University Berlin, Faculty of Biology, Unter den Linden 6, 10099 Berlin, Germany
Received 7 May 2008; 
revised 29 July 2008; 
accepted 31 July 2008. 
Available online 14 September 2008.


The bioaccumulation potential of glyphosate and the formulation Roundup Ultra, as well as possible effects on biotransformation and antioxidant enzymes in Lumbriculus variegatus were compared by four days exposure to concentrations between 0.05 and 5 mg L−1 pure glyphosate and its formulation. Bioaccumulation was determined using 14C labeled glyphosate. The bioaccumulation factor (BCF) varied between 1.4 and 5.9 for the different concentrations, and was higher than estimated from log Pow. Glyphosate and its surfactant POEA caused elevation of biotransformation enzyme soluble glutathione S-transferase at non-toxic concentrations. Membrane bound glutathione S-transferase activity was significantly elevated in Roundup Ultra exposed worms, compared to treatment with equal glyphosate concentrations, but did not significantly differ from the control. Antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase was significantly increased by glyphosate but in particular by Roundup Ultra exposure indicating oxidative stress. The results show that the formulation Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the glyphosate itself.
Roundup Ultra is of more ecotoxicological relevance than the active ingredient, glyphosate, to Lumbriculus variegatus regarding accumulation potential and enzymatic responses.
Keywords: Glyphosate; Roundup Ultra; Bioaccumulation; Biotransformation; Oxidative stress

Aquatic Toxicology
Volume 89, Issue 4, 29 September 2008, Pages 232-241

Sabine Stachowski-Haberkorna, Beatriz Beckerb, Dominique Mariec, Hansy Haberkornd, Louis Corollera and Denis de la Broisea, Corresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author
aUniversité Européenne de Bretagne, LUBEM (EA3882), UBO, 6 rue de l’université, 29334 Quimper, France
bCentre d’Océanologie de Marseille, rue de la Batterie des Lions, 13007 Marseille, France
cStation Biologique de Roscoff, UMR7144, CNRS et Université Pierre et Marie Curie, Place G. Teissier, 29682 Roscoff, France
dUniversité Européenne de Bretagne, LEMAR (UMR 6539), UBO, IUEM, Place Nicolas Copernic, Technopôle Brest Iroise, 29280 Plouzané, France
Received 16 April 2008; 
revised 13 June 2008; 
accepted 8 July 2008. 
Available online 18 July 2008.


The effects of the herbicide Roundup® (glyphosate) on natural marine microbial communities were assessed in a 7-day field experiment using microcosms. Bottles were maintained underwater at 6 m depth, and 10% of their water content was changed every other day.
The comparison of control microcosms and surrounding surface water showed that the microcosm system tested here can be considered as representative of the natural surrounding environment. A temporal temperature gradient gel electrophoresis (TTGE) was run on 16S and 18S rDNA-amplified extracts from the whole microbial community. Cluster analysis of the 16S gel showed differences between control and treatment fingerprints for Roundup at 1 μg L−1 (ANOSIM, p = 0.055; R = 0.53), and 10 μg L−1 (ANOSIM, p = 0.086; R = 0.40). Flow cytometry analysis revealed a significant increase in the prasinophyte-like population when Roundup concentration was increased to 10 μg L−1.
This study demonstrates that a disturbance was caused to the marine microbial community exposed to 1 μg L−1 Roundup concentration, a value typical of those reported in coastal waters during a run-off event.
Keywords: Microcosm; Marine microbial communities; Glyphosate; TTGE; Flow cytometry

Mutat Res. 2008 Aug-Sep;655(1-2):41-6.

Genotoxic effects of Roundup on the fish Prochilodus lineatus.


Departamento de Biologia Geral, Universidade Estadual de Londrina, Paraná, Brazil.


Glyphosate-based herbicides, such as Roundup, represent the most extensively used herbicides worldwide, including Brazil. Despite its extensive use, the genotoxic effects of this herbicide are not completely understood and studies with Roundup show conflicting results with regard to the effects of this product on the genetic material. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the genotoxic effects of acute exposures (6, 24 and 96 h) to 10 mg L(-1) of Roundup on the neotropical fish Prochilodus lineatus. Accordingly, fish erythrocytes were used in the comet assay, micronucleus test and for the analysis of the occurrence of nuclear abnormalities and the comet assay was adjusted for branchial cells. The results showed that Roundup produces genotoxic damage in erythrocytes and gill cells of P. lineatus. The comet scores obtained for P. lineatus erythrocytes after 6 and 96 h of exposure to Roundup were significantly higher than respective negative controls. For branchial cells comet scores were significantly higher than negative controls after 6 and 24 h exposures. The frequencies of micronucleus and other erythrocyte nuclear abnormalities (ENAs) were not significantly different between Roundup exposed fish and their respective negative controls, for all exposure periods. In conclusion, the results of this work showed that Roundup produced genotoxic effects on the fish species P. lineatus. The comet assay with gill cells showed to be an important complementary tool for detecting genotoxicity, given that it revealed DNA damage in periods of exposure that erythrocytes did not. ENAs frequency was not a good indicator of genotoxicity, but further studies are needed to better understand the origin of these abnormalities.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol. 2008 Jun;80(6):512-5. Epub 2008 Apr 23.

Effect of the herbicide Roundup on Perkinsus olseni in vitro proliferation and in vivo survival when infecting a permissive host, the clam Ruditapes decussatus.


CCMar, University of Algarve, Campus de Gambelas, 8005-139 Faro, Portugal.


Coastal habitats are increasingly being exposed to herbicide contamination from urban and agricultural catchments. Data on its toxicity on aquatic ecosystems, especially those based on sediment, are relatively scarce. This study aimed at investigating whether the susceptibility of an aquatic filter-feeding organism, the carpet-shell clam (Ruditapes decussatus) to the parasite Perkinsus olseni was influenced by the herbicide Roundup and its active ingredient glyphosate. The effect of Roundup and glyphosate on P. olseni in vitro proliferation was also evaluated and appeared to confirm the higher toxicity of Roundup when compared with technical grade glyphosate.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Embryotoxic and Teratogenic Effects of Roundup® Max on Rat Development 

Ayþe, Cansýn. Aslý, Dürdane Geriþlioglu , Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

Dürdane Kolankaya Sr. , Biology, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey

  Ayþe Geriþlioglu* , Cansýn Güngörmüþ*, Aslý Korkmaz, Dürdane Kolankaya*
 *Hacettepe University, Faculty of Science, Biology Departmen, Zoology Section, Beytepe, Ankara, TURKEY

 Glyphosate is the active ingredient of Roundup® Max, commercially available as a non-selective, organophosphorated agrochemical and broad-spectrum herbicide. It is widely used in many countries, including Turkey to control weeds in emerged grasses, broad-leaf weeds, rice, corn and soy plantations which acts after the sprout in a systemic way. In recent study, to evaluate the possible developmental effects of Glyphosate, female Wistar rats were treated with Roundup® Max containing 78.5% Glyphosate by oral gavage during pregnancy. There were three groups of each containing five pregnant rats. We administrated 10% and 20% doses of Roundup® Max, which is the commercial form of Glyphosate with LD50 dose 5600 mg/kg. Rats in Group I, II and III were fed with standard diet, 560 mg/kg Roundup and 1120 mg/kg Roundup during gestational days (GD 0-20) respectively. We assessed foetal body lengths and weights, organ weights and also made morphometric examination of placenta and umbilical cord. There were a significant decrease in foetal body weights and foetal liver weights in treatment groups (P≤0.05). The placental weights of Group II and Group III were found to be increased statistically. Placental lengths were increased in treatment groups. The umbilical cord lengths in Group II showed a significant increase when compared to Group I. It was evaluated that implantation ratios were decreased and resorption ratios were increased in treatment groups. According to skeletal stainings of foetuses, calsification lengths of humerus (4.9%, 19.8%), radius (14.2%, 22.6%), ulna (14.7%, 21%), femur (2%, 30%), tibia (3.9%, 29.1%) and fibula (4.3%, 13.5%) were statistically decreased in 10% and 20% Roundup treatment groups respectively. These results suggest that prenatal development of rats during gestation is sensitive to Roundup® Max exposure.


Ecotoxicology. 2008 Apr;17(3):153-63. Epub 2007 Nov 7.

Oxidative stress biomarkers and heart function in bullfrog tadpoles exposed to Roundup Original.


Campus of Sorocaba, Federal University of São Carlos, Avenida Darci Carvalho Dafferner 200, Sorocaba, SP, 18043-970, Brazil.


Oxidative stress biomarkers, in vivo heart rate (f (H)), and contraction dynamics of ventricle strips of bullfrog (Lithobates catesbeiana) tadpoles were evaluated after 48 h of exposure to a sub-lethal concentration (1 ppm) of the herbicide Roundup Original (glyphosate 41%). The activities of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase and catalase were increased in the liver and decreased in muscle, while oxidative damage to lipids increased above control values in both tissues, showing that the generation of reactive oxygen species and oxidative stress are involved in the toxicity induced by Roundup. Additionally, tadpoles' hyperactivity was associated with tachycardia in vivo, probably due to a stress-induced adrenergic stimulation. Ventricle strips of Roundup-exposed tadpoles (R-group) presented a faster relaxation and also a higher cardiac pumping capacity at the in vivo contraction frequency, indicating that bullfrog tadpoles were able to perform cardiac mechanistic adjustments to face Roundup-exposure. However, the lower maximal in vitro contraction frequency of the R-group could limit its in vivo cardiac performance, when the adrenergic-stimulation is present. The association between the high energetic cost to counteract the harmful effects of this herbicide and the induction of oxidative stress suggest that low and realistic concentrations of Roundup can have an impact on tadpoles' performance and success, jeopardizing their survival and/or population establishment.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
Volume 25, Issue 1, January 2008, Pages 57-62

Sinan Çağlara and Dürdane KolankayaCorresponding Author Contact Information, a, E-mail The Corresponding Author
a Hacettepe University, Science Faculty, Department of Biology, Beytepe Campus, Ankara, Turkey
Received 25 April 2007; 
revised 18 July 2007; 
accepted 28 August 2007. 
Available online 10 September 2007.


Roundup is a glyphosate-based herbicide that includes 78.5% glyphosate and surfactant at lower toxic concentrations. Glyphosate is an organophosphorated non-selective agrochemical widely used in many countries including Turkey and acts after the sprout in a systemic way. The objective of this study was to analyze toxic effects of the herbicide Roundup in rat liver. Animals were treated with 56 mg/kg (p.o.) and 560 mg/kg (p.o.) of Roundup (78% glyphosate + surfactant) each day, during 5 and 13 weeks. Hepatotoxicity was monitored by quantitative analysis of the serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities and measured amount of serum lipoprotein (LDL, HDL), total cholesterol and creatinine were used as the biochemical markers of liver damages. Besides the biochemical analysis, we also investigated liver tissues histopathologically. Sub-chronic treatment, starting from the low and high doses of Roundup, it was observed that there were mild effects on activity of ALT, AST and LDH enzymes indicating the hepatic toxicity induced by Roundup. It was found that the mild effects were different on the enzymes in male and female rats of treatment groups. Also it was found some difference in serum lipoprotein (LDL, HDL) and t-cholesterol. There was no difference creatinine value between control and treatment groups but it was observed that degenerative formation such as mononuclear cell infiltration and congestion of the liver tissues of treatment groups.
Keywords: Rat; Roundup; Serum ALT; AST; LDH; HDL; LDL; Liver histopathology

Ecol Appl. 2007 Dec;17(8):2310-22.

Effects of the herbicide Roundup on freshwater microbial communities: a mesocosm study.


Instituto de Investigaciones Biotecnológicas, Instituto Tecnológico de Chascomús (Intech), CONICET, Camino Circunvalación Laguna Km 6, CC 164, 7130 Chascomús, Argentina.


The impact of the widely used herbicide glyphosate has been mainly studied in terrestrial weed control, laboratory bioassays, and field studies focusing on invertebrates, amphibians, and fishes. Despite the importance of phytoplankton and periphyton communities at the base of the aquatic food webs, fewer studies have investigated the effects of glyphosate on freshwater microbial assemblages. We assessed the effect of the commercial formulation Roundup using artificial earthen mesocosms. The herbicide was added at three doses: a control (without Roundup) and two treatments of 6 and 12 mg/L of the active ingredient (glyphosate). Estimates of the dissipation rate (k) were similar in the two treatments (half-lives of 5.77 and 7.37 d, respectively). The only two physicochemical parameters showing statistically significant differences between treatments and controls were the downward vertical spectral attenuation coefficient kd(lambda), where lambda is wavelength, and total phosphorus concentration (TP). At the end of the experiment, the treated mesocosms showed a significant increase in the ratio kd(490 nm)/k(d)(550 nm) and an eightfold increase in TP. Roundup affected the structure of phytoplankton and periphyton assemblages. Total micro- and nano-phytoplankton decreased in abundance in treated mesocosms. In contrast, the abundance of picocyanobacteria increased by a factor of about 40. Primary production also increased in treated mesocosms (roughly by a factor of two). Similar patterns were observed in the periphytic assemblages, which showed an increased proportion of dead: live individuals and increased abundances of cyanobacteria (about 4.5-fold). Interestingly, the observed changes in the microbial assemblages were captured by the analysis of the pigment composition of the phytoplankton, the phytoplankton absorption spectra, and the analysis of the optical properties of the water. The observed changes in the structure of the microbial assemblages are more consistent with a direct toxicological effect of glyphosate rather than an indirect effect mediated by phosphorus enrichment.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Marine Environmental Research
Volume 50, Issues 1-5, July 2000, Pages 263-266

J. SzarekCorresponding Author Contact Information, E-mail The Corresponding Author, a, A. Siwickib, A. Andrzejewskac, E. Terech-Majewskac and T. Banaszkiewiczd
a Department of Forensic and Administration Veterinary Medicine, Warmia and Masuria University in Olsztyn, Oczapowskiego St.13, 10-717 Olsztyn, Poland
b Department of Epizootiology with Clinic of Infectious Diseases, Warmia and Masuria University in Olsztyn, 10-717 Olsztyn, Poland
c Department of Pathological Anatomy, Medical Academy of Bialystok, 15-269 Bialystok, Poland
d Department of Plant Protection, Warmia and Masuria University in Olsztyn, 10-717 Olsztyn, Poland
Received 29 April 1999;
revised 9 December 1999;
accepted 11 February 2000.
Available online 10 November 2000.


Experimental studies were performed on healthy, 80–100 g carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were exposed by emersion in Roundup™ (205 mg of glyphosate/l or 410 mg of glyphosate/l) in concentrations of 40- to 20-fold lower than those used in practice. Electron microscopy revealed that the herbicide caused appearance of myelin-like structures in carp hepatocytes, swelling of mitochondria and disappearance of internal membrane of mitochondria in carp at both exposure concentrations. It means that Roundup was harmful to carp when used in applied concentrations. Results of these studies enhance our knowledge of ultrastructural pathomorphology of fish organs following exposure to Roundup.
Author Keywords: Cyprinus carpio; Hepatocytes; Lesions; Pollution effects; Roundup™ toxicity

Reproductive Toxicology
Volume 23, Issue 2, February 2007, Pages 182-191

André G. Oliveiraa, Luiz F. Tellesa, Rex A. Hessb, Germán A.B. Mahechaa and Cleida A. Oliveiraa,
aDepartment of Morphology of the Federal University of Minas Gerais, Cx. Postal 486, CEP 31.270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
bDepartment of Veterinary Biosciences, University of Illinois, 2001 South Lincoln, Urbana, IL 61802, United States
Received 23 July 2006; 
revised 31 August 2006; 
accepted 1 November 2006. 
Available online 11 November 2006.


Exposure to the Roundup has been shown to affect StAR protein and aromatase expression and activity, pointing out that this herbicide may cause adverse effects in animal reproduction by affecting androgen and estrogen synthesis. We tested this hypothesis by investigating the in vivo effects of the Roundup on the testis and epididymal region of drake Anas platyrhynchos. The exposure to the herbicide resulted in alterations in the structure of the testis and epididymal region as well as in the serum levels of testosterone and estradiol, with changes in the expression of androgen receptors restricted to the testis. The harmful effects were more conspicuous in the proximal efferent ductules and epididymal ducts, suggesting higher sensitivity of these segments among the male genital organs. The effects were mostly dose dependent, indicating that this herbicide may cause disorder in the morphophysiology of the male genital system of animals.
Keywords: Roundup; Glyphosate; Epididymal region; Efferent ductules; Androgen receptor; Endocrine disruption; drake


J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Sep 20;54(19):7221-6.

Soil microbial activity is affected by Roundup WeatherMax and pesticides applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).


Texas Agricultural Experiment Station, Texas A&M University, 2474 TAMU College Station, Texas 77843-2474, USA.


Adoption of glyphosate-based weed control systems has led to increased use of the herbicide with continued use of additional pesticides. Combinations of pesticides may affect soil microbial activity differently than pesticides applied alone. Research was conducted to evaluate the influence of glyphosate-based cotton pest management systems on soil microbial activity. Soil was treated with commercial formulations of trifluralin, aldicarb, and mefenoxam + pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) with or without glyphosate (applied as Roundup WeatherMax). The soil microbial activity was measured by quantifying C and N mineralization. Soil microbial biomass was determined using the chloroform fumigation-incubation method. Soils treated with glyphosate alone exhibited greater cumulative C mineralization 30 days after treatment than all other treatments, which were similar to the untreated control. The addition of Roundup WeatherMax reduced C mineralization in soils treated with fluometuron, aldicarb, or mefenoxam + PCNB formulations. These results indicate that glyphosate-based herbicides alter the soil microbial response to other pesticides.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol. 2006 Feb;50(2):175-81. Epub 2005 Nov 29.

Effects of the herbicides Roundup and Avans on Euglena gracilis.


Department of Natural Sciences, Mid Sweden University, Sundsvall 85170, Sweden.


Glyphosate is the active ingredient in a range of widely used herbicides. The aim of this work is to evaluate the effects of two commercial herbicides, Roundup and Avans, on the motility, velocity, and gravitactic orientation of the aquatic flagellate Euglena gracilis. An early warning system, called ECOTOX, has been used for monitoring the different parameters of movement. The motility was not affected by Roundup and Avans after short period tests (0, 30, and 60 s). However, gravitactic orientation of the cells was affected at concentrations of 1.25 g l(-1) and above when treated with Avans, whereas treatments with Roundup showed no specific changes after short period tests. Velocity of the cells was affected by both herbicides, but the effects of Avans were shown to occur at lower concentrations in comparison to Roundup. Avans showed lower no observable effect concentration (NOEC) values in comparison to Roundup for the different parameters after short period tests. After long period (7 days) tests, NOEC values were similar except for the upward swimming, where Avans had a NOEC value of 100 microg l(-1) and Roundup 200 microg l(-1). The results demonstrate that Avans containing trimethylsulfonium salt of glyphosate is more toxic to E. gracilis than Roundup, which contained isopropylamine salt of glyphosate.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Agric Food Chem. 2008 Sep 24;56(18):8588-93. Epub 2008 Aug 26.

Microbial degradation of fluometuron is influenced by roundup weatherMAX.


Texas AgriLife Research, Department of Soil and Crop Sciences, Texas A&M University, 2474 TAMU, College Station, Texas 77843-2474, USA.


Laboratory experiments were conducted to describe the influence of glyphosate and fluometuron on soil microbial activity and to determine the effect of glyphosate on fluometuron degradation in soil and by Rhizoctonia solani. Soil and liquid medium were amended with formulated fluometuron alone or with two rates of formulated glyphosate. The soil carbon mineralization was measured hourly for 33 days. The fluometuron remaining in the soil was quantified following 3, 6, 10, 15, 20, 30, and 40 days of incubation. The fluometuron remaining in medium and fungal biomass was measured after 1, 3, 6, 10, 15, and 20 days of incubation. The addition of glyphosate with fluometuron increased C-mineralization and increased the rate of fluometuron degradation relative to fluometuron applied alone. However, more fluometuron remained in the media and less fungal biomass was produced when glyphosate was included.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE]
J Agric Food Chem. 2006 Mar 8;54(5):1699-709.

Detection of transgenic and endogenous plant DNA in digesta and tissues of sheep and pigs fed Roundup Ready canola meal.


Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada Research Centres, Lethbridge, Alberta, Canada.


The persistence of plant-derived recombinant DNA in sheep and pigs fed genetically modified (Roundup Ready) canola was assessed by PCR and Southern hybridization analysis of DNA extracted from digesta, gastrointestinal (GI) tract tissues, and visceral organs. Sheep (n = 11) and pigs (n = 36) were fed to slaughter on diets containing 6.5 or 15% Roundup Ready canola. Native plant DNA (high- and low-copy-number gene fragments) and the cp4 epsps transgene that encodes 5-enolpyruvyl shikimate-3-phosphate synthase were tracked in ruminal, abomasal, and large intestinal digesta and in tissue from the esophagus, rumen, abomasum, small and large intestine, liver, and kidney of sheep and in cecal content and tissue from the duodenum, cecum, liver, spleen, and kidney of pigs. High-copy chloroplast-specific DNA (a 520-bp fragment) was detected in all digesta samples, the majority (89-100%) of intestinal tissues, and at least one of each visceral organ sample (frequencies of 3-27%) from sheep and swine. Low-copy rubisco fragments (186- and 540-bp sequences from the small subunit) were present at slightly lower, variable frequencies in digesta (18-82%) and intestinal tissues (9-27% of ovine and 17-25% of porcine samples) and infrequently in visceral organs (1 of 88 ovine samples; 3 of 216 porcine samples). Each of the five cp4 epsps transgene fragments (179-527 bp) surveyed was present in at least 27% of ovine large intestinal content samples (maximum = 64%) and at least 33% of porcine cecal content samples (maximum = 75%). In sheep, transgene fragments were more common in intestinal digesta than in ruminal or abomasal content. Transgene fragments were detected in 0 (esophagus) to 3 (large intestine) GI tract tissues from the 11 sheep and in 0-10 of the duodenal and cecal tissues collected from 36 pigs. The feed-ingested recombinant DNA was not detected in visceral tissues (liver, kidney) of lambs or in the spleen from pigs. Of note, however, one liver and one kidney sample from the pigs (different animals) were positive for a 278-bp fragment of the transgenic cp4 epsps (denoted F3). Examination of genomic libraries from these tissues yielded no conclusive information regarding integration of the fragment into porcine DNA. This study confirms that feed-ingested DNA fragments (endogenous and transgenic) do survive to the terminal GI tract and that uptake into gut epithelial tissues does occur. A very low frequency of transmittance to visceral tissue was confirmed in pigs, but not in sheep. It is recognized that the low copy number of transgenes in GM feeds is a challenge to their detection in tissues, but there was no evidence to suggest that recombinant DNA would be processed in the gut in any manner different from endogenous feed-ingested genetic material.
[PubMed - indexed for MEDLINE] 

Soil microbial activity is affected by Roundup WeatherMax and pesticides applied to cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) 


itemLancaster, Sarah - TEXAS A&M
itemSenseman, Scott - TEXAS A&M
itemHons, Frank - TEXAS A&M
itemChandler, James - TEXAS A&M 

Submitted to: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Publication Type: Peer Reviewed Journal
Publication Acceptance Date: July 27, 2006
Publication Date: August 25, 2006

Interpretive Summary: From an environmental perspective, the use of the herbicide Roundup would be preferred over other herbicides since it is rapidly destroyed by soil microbes. However, Roundup-based weed control systems have resulted in extensive use of the herbicide, with multiple applications in a single growing season becoming common. Roundup is also applied with other pesticides and may affect the ability of soil microbes to break them down into harmless chemical compounds. This research indicates that soil microbes are very sensitive to chemicals added to the soil and that soil microbial activity can be very useful when assessing the impact these chemicals will have on the longer-term health of the soil. Soil microbial activity rapidly identified (within a few days) which combinations of herbicides and pesticides that had the potential to alter the soil microbe"s ability to rapidly destroy these chemical inputs.

Technical Abstract: Adoption of glyphosate-based weed control systems has led to increased use of the herbicide with continued use of additional pesticides. Combinations of pesticides may affect soil microbial activity differently than pesticides applied alone. Research was conducted to evaluate the influence of glyphosate-based cotton pest management systems on soil microbial activity. Soil was treated with commercial formulations of trifluralin, aldicarb, and mefenoxam + pentachloronitrobenzene (PCNB) with or without glyphosate (applied as Roundup WeatherMax). The soil microbial activity was measured by quantifying C and N mineralization. Soil microbial biomass was determined using the chloroform fumigation-incubation method. Soils treated with glyphosate alone exhibited greater cumulative C mineralization 30 days after treatment than all other treatments, which were similar to the untreated control. The addition of Roundup WeatherMax reduced C mineralization in soils treated with fluometuron, aldicarb, or mefenoxam + PCNB formulations. These results indicate that glyphosatebased herbicides alter the soil microbial response to other pesticides.